The.umber of girls Why Men Cheat that die within their first year of birth is twice that of boys. 38 Another drawback of the policy is that China’s elderly population is now increasing rapidly. 39 However, while the punishment of “unplanned” pregnancy is a large fine, both forced abortion and forced sterilization can be charged with intentional assault, which is punished with up to ten years' imprisonment. In the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012 guarantees universal access to methods on contraception, fertility control, sexual education, and maternal care. Contraception has been available for free under the National Health Service since 1974, and 74% of reproductive-age women use some form of contraception. 57 The levonorgestrel intrauterine system has been massively popular. 57 Sterilization is popular in older age groups, among those 45–49, 29% of men and 21% of women have been sterilized. 57 Female sterilization has been declining since 1996, when the intrauterine system was introduced. 57 Emergency contraception has been available since the 1970s, a product was specifically licensed for emergency contraception in 1984, and emergency contraceptives became available over the counter in 2001. 57 Since becoming available over the counter it has not reduced the use of other forms of contraception, as some moralists feared it might. 57 In any year only 5% of women of childbearing age use emergency hormonal contraception. 57 Despite widespread availability of contraceptives, almost half of pregnancies were unintended in 2005. 57 Abortion was legalized in 1967. 57 Main article: Birth control in the United States Despite the availability of highly effective contraceptives, about half of U.S. pregnancies are unintended . 58 Highly effective contraceptives, such as IUD, are underused in the United States. 33 Increasing use of highly effective contraceptives could help meet the goal set forward in Healthy People 2020 to decrease unintended pregnancy by 10%. 33 Cost to the user is one factor preventing many American women from using more effective contraceptives. 33 Making contraceptives available without a copay increases use of highly effective methods, reduces unintended pregnancies, and may be instrumental in achieving the Healthy People 2020 goals. 33 In the United States, contraceptive use saves about $19 billion in direct medical costs each year. 58 Title X of the Public Health Service Act, 59 is a U.S. government program dedicated to providing family planning services for those in need.
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The projected level for Iran's 2005 to 2010 birth rate is fewer than two. 50 In late July 2012, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei described Iran's contraceptive services as “wrong,” and Iranian authorities are slashing birth-control programs in what one Western newspaper USA Today describes as a “major reversal” of its long standing policy. The United Nations Population Fund UNFPA says that, “Contraceptives prevent unintended pregnancies, reduce the number of abortions, and lower the incidence of death and disability related to complications of pregnancy and childbirth.” 12 UNFPA states that, “If all women with an unmet need for contraceptives were able to use modern methods, an additional 24 million abortions 14 million of which would be unsafe, 6 million miscarriages, 70,000 maternal deaths and 500,000 infant deaths would be prevented.” 12 In cases where couples may not want to have children just yet, family planning programs help a lot.